What is balloon sinuplasty?
Balloon sinuplasty is a type of endoscopic nasal procedure. It uses small balloon catheters that permanently inflate to drain the large nasal sinuses. Balloon sinuplasty is typically used to treat cases of rhinosinusitis or sinus inflammation and blockage in the nose. The procedure was adapted from angioplasty, where balloon catheters are used to dilate damaged or congested blood vessels near the heart.
Fast facts on balloon sinuplasty:
The procedure has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2005. Dr. Kortbus was trained with this technology right when it started, back at NYU in 2005.
Balloon sinuplasty, as with all sinuplasty surgeries, is extremely effective in reducing symptoms of rhinosinusitis.
Increasingly, balloon sinuplasty is being recognized and fully covered by medical insurance companies.
A balloon sinuplasty is a procedure used to treat conditions causing blocked or inflamed sinuses.
The procedure is minimally invasive, involves no cutting or loss of nasal tissues or bone, and has a very short recovery time.
As a result, balloon sinuplasty is quickly becoming the procedure of choice for chronic or severe sinusitis that does not respond to other medical therapies, such as nasal decongestant medications and rinses, antibiotics, and nasal and oral corticosteroids.
A 2017 study found that the number of balloon sinus procedures performed in the U.S. increased 59 percent annually from 2011 to 2014.
Most people who need the procedure have a condition that leads to the sinus membranes becoming inflamed, preventing drainage of mucus, pus, and discharge, and causing congestion.
Over time, blocked and inflamed nasal passages can interfere with breathing, and lead to symptoms, such as a headache, jaw ache, and insomnia.
Balloon sinuplasty allows doctors to forcibly widen blocked nasal passages and flush out or remove congestion, often using a saline solution.
Does it help?
A balloon sinuplasty procedure may help to ease the symptoms of chronic sinusitis.
A 2016 study found that out of 15 adults who received balloon sinuplasty, all reported improved symptoms 3 and 6 months after procedure, without any unanticipated side effects.
The same study concluded that those who underwent balloon sinuplasty had more open, clear nasal passages after the procedure than before.
Furthermore, the procedure helped preserve healthy nasal tissues, mucous membranes, and structure.
A 2017 study found that balloon sinuplasty was successful in treating 94 percent of chronic sinusitis cases in 30 children who underwent the procedure. The positive effects persisted for up to 1 year following procedure.
A 2013 study found that out of 20 individuals who received balloon sinuplasty, all reported dramatically improved symptoms within 1 week of procedure. These participants were also symptom-free during follow-ups in the year after their procedure.
Another 2013 study, found that when performed in a doctor's office under local anesthesia, people who had balloon sinuplasty reported an overall improved the quality of life. They also had more open sinuses in radiographic images 24 weeks after procedure.
The same researchers reconfirmed the improvements in 2015, a further year after their original operations.
Is it safe?
Balloon sinuplasty is considered a very safe, effective, procedure when performed by a doctor.
Since its introduction in the mid-2000s, balloon sinuplasty has become one of the most commonly performed types of sinus surgeries. This popularity is because it is associated with such high rates of success and low risks of complications.
Benefits of balloon sinuplasty over traditional endoscopic sinus surgeries include:
lower risk of bleeding
shorter office, clinic, or hospital stay and much faster recovery time
no intended damage or removal of sinus tissues, structures, mucous membranes, nasal bones or sinus cartilage
fewer required post-operative appointments or need to inspect stitches or sutures
reduced need for the use of operative and post-operative pain medications
reduced need for general anesthesia and lowered risk of adverse reaction to it
reduced risk of post-operative infection
reduced risk of unintentional tissue or structure damage
reduced risk of scarring and continued inflammation
As with all surgical procedures, balloon sinuplasty is known to cause some minor symptoms, but this resolves shortly after procedure.
Common minor side effects associated with balloon sinuplasty include:
bleeding or bloody drainage for a few days
nasal, cheek, or forehead tenderness
minor swelling in nasal cavities and passages and surrounding facial area
infection, usually from a failure to properly cleanse the sinuses after procedure
Anytime a person is exposed to a form of anesthesia there is always a risk of severe adverse reactions, such as breathing difficulties. The most common of these is cough during the procedure, likely from local anesthesia dripping into the windpipe.
What is the procedure like and does it hurt?
ENT doctor in consultation with patient before procedure.
Balloon sinuplasty is a low-risk procedure that has positive results for almost all patients.
Depending on individual factors and preferences, balloon sinuplasties are done by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctor in their office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital.
The procedure may be done using general or local anesthesia.
After administering either form of anesthesia, a doctor inserts an endoscope, a thin, flexible, plastic tube with a camera and light on the end, into the nasal passages.
Once the entrance to the cavity is reached, the doctor will slowly advance a small balloon catheter over the guiding endoscope wire.
When the balloon catheter is correctly positioned inside the nasal passage and cavity, it will be slowly inflated and pressed against the sinus walls, to fracture the bone slightly and force an opening.
Once the balloon is fully inflated, a doctor will flush out the passageways and cavities with a saline rinse to further remove debris. Finally, the balloon is removed and the sinus is left to continue to drain naturally.
Most people who undergo balloon sinuplasty report feelings of sinus pressure or numbness only during the procedure, and not noticeable pain. Most procedures take less than 1 hour to perform.
Costs and insurance
A few medical insurance policies still consider the procedure to be an elective procedure, meaning it is not eligible for coverage.
A 2014 statement by the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS), called for all insurance payers to consider balloon sinuplasty as a standard cover service.
The out-of-pocket costs and medical approval process associated with each sinuplasty depends on an individual's plan and case, the severity of symptoms, and whether or not their condition improved with other, less invasive medical therapies.
Overall, the costs associated with balloon sinuplasty range from $2,000 to $7,000. Without insurance, endoscopic sinuplasties typically cost around $20,000 dollars. Generally, surgeries performed in a doctor's office or clinical setting under local anesthesia cost a fraction of those done in hospitals.
How long does it take to recover?
Most people can go home right after balloon sinuplasty and return to most regular activities after 24 to 48 hours.
Usually, sinuplasty tends to cause grogginess, tiredness, tenderness, congestion, and bloody drainage in the week following procedure.
A doctor may advise against nose-blowing for 1 to 2 days immediately after the procedure. Usually, it is advisable for an individual to avoid strenuous activities for at least a week after sinuplasty.
Many people find it helpful to sleep or rest with their head and neck in an elevated position to promote drainage. And over-the-counter anti-inflammatories can help manage irritating or uncomfortable symptoms afterward.